What is Coal (What is the meaning of fossil fuel)?
Coal is a fossil fuel created from the remains of plants that lived and died about 100 to 400 million years ago when parts of the earth were covered with huge swampy forests. Coal is classified as a non-renewable energy source because it takes millions of years to form.
How coal is mined?
Surface mining and deep underground mining are the two basic methods of mining. The choice of mining method depends primarily on depth of burial, density of the overburden and thickness of the coal seam.
Describe different uses of coal?
Coal has many important uses worldwide. The most significant uses of coal are in electricity generation, steel production, cement manufacturing and as a liquid fuel.
What are different types of coal?
There are several different types of coal (Peat, Lignite, Black coal, Anthracite) that have different properties usually dependent on their age and the depth to which they have been buried under other rocks. Coals other than cooking or semi cooking or weakly coals are non-cooking coals.
What is UHV and GCV?
UHV stands for useful heat value of coal. Which is calculated by the empirical formula as below:
UHV = 8900-138(ash%+Moisture %) in Kilo Calories/Kilogram.
And GCV stands for Gross Calorific Value of coal. For calculating GCV following Empirical formula has been used assuming a uniform moisture of 5% for all grades.
1.8 Q =154 [100- (1.1 A + M)] – 108 M
Where A stands for ASH and M for Moisture
What type of coal is used in cement industry?
Cement Industry generally requires coal of B/C/D grade coal having Ash from 19 to 20% Slack/Rom Coal. Quality of coal depends on type of Kilns. As per new grading system this is equivalent to G4 to G9 Grades.
What is SLC and its role vis-à-vis cement industry?
Standing Linkage Committee is a body constituted by Ministry of coal for recommending/granting Linkage to the industrial coal users. Its representative include Ministry of Coal DIPP, Power, CEA, Steel, Program Implementation, Railways and PMO etc.
Who are the top producers of coal?
China, USA, India, Australia, Indonesia, South Africa etc.
What is LOA?
LOA stands for Letter of Assurances. It is issued to new consumers on being approved by the appropriate authority, based on recommendation of a committee constituted Specific terms & conditions of the LOA to be complied with within a stipulated time period for being eligible to enter into FSA for commencing coal supply.
What is FSA?
FSA stands for Fuel supply Agreement. As per new Coal Distribution Policy (NCDP) Coal supplies are governed by legally enforceable agreements between the seller (coal companies) and the consumer under specific terms and conditions. Various model FSAs for different categories of consumer have been placed in the website.
Quantity of coal used in one tonne of cement?
170 KG per Tonne of Clinker produced.
When coal industry was nationalised in the country?
In the year 1972 and again in 1973 CIL (Coal India Limited) and SCCL (Singareni Collieries Company Limited) are the two main coal companies producesing coal in india.
Which State produces the most coal?
India has abundant domestic reserves of coal. Most of these are in the states of Jharkhand, Orissa, West Bengal, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Telangana and Madhya Pradesh.
What is the Present Coal Reserve in the country?
A total of 301.56 billion tonnes of coal reserves are estimated by GSI as on 1.4.2014 of which the "Prime" coking coal are 5.313 billion tonnes, medium and semi-coking coals are 28.76 billion tonnes, non-coking coals are 266.00 billion tonnes and Terciary coal is 1.49 billion tonnes.
In India coal is generally imported from which countries?
Indonesia , South Africa, Australia , Mozambique,
What is the rate of import duty on coal?
Presently coal in under OGL. The rate of import duty on coal is 2.5% BCD and 2% CVD.
Some useful statistics.
Cement Industry consumes around 45-50 Million Tonnes of coal every year. This include FSA Coal, Open Market, Lignite, Petcoke, Imported coal and Other Fuel.
How could I get coal for industrial requirement?
New Coal Distribution Policy (NCDP) of Gov't of India specifies the policy for distribution of Coal. Depending upon the category of the consumer and requirement of Coal, the policy provides for appropriate procedure for obtaining Coal.
How much coal is distributed through e-auction?
5 % of annual production of CIL is marked for e-auction.
Who are eligible to participate in e-auction?
Any buyer can participate in spot e-auction and only actual consumer can participate in forward e-auction.
What is the procedure for participation in e-auction?
The procedure for participation in e-auction is specified in the scheme for spot e-auction and scheme for forward e-auction.
What is procedure of sampling of coal?
Coal is used for power generation, steel making, cement production and many other purposes. Each year, billions of tonnes of coal are traded in regional and international markets. Incommercial operations, the price of coal not only reflects the quantity but also the properties. The properties of coal often form the basis of sale contracts, and include calorific value, volatilematter, moisture, sulphur, chlorine and ash (elemental composition) content. These propertiesare all measured at samples taken during loading of the coal. Payment for the coal is based on the analytical results.